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Norfolk Geology Flint & Chalk - What is it and How did it form..

Norfolk Geology Flint & Chalk - What is it and How did it form.. Norfolk Geology
Flint & Chalk - What is it and How did it form..
Danny Hickling - Little Gems Rock Shop.
Proud ambassador of the Deep History Coast 

Flint was formed in a warm era of the Earth life - The cretaceous period around 60 - 100 million years ago - at this time due to the higher temperatures the sea level was much higher from its present level and a shadow tropical sea covered most of the earths surface. The exoskeletons of microscopic sea life mostly Coccolithophores plankton mounted up over millions of years to form a bed of chalk around 1300 feet thick (405m) over much of the UK. This chalk was laid down over a time period of over 30-35  million years. This brings up the mind boggling calculation  that around 11.5cm of depth in the chalk deposit represents 10,000 years of time! 

Plankton life may have well made up the largest amount of the deposits on the ocean floor but there was an abundance of other sea life life in particular Corals and Sponges-as these decomposed on the sea floor it created a kind of organic use of silica the silica rich deposits seeped through internal cracks and formed to fill voids left by extinct creatures which form and other irregularities such as shrimp and worm burrows.

In Norfolk chalk is at the surface bedrock through out most of the west of the county falling a particular type of landscape. To the East of the county the Chalk is buried but still present under glacial deposits of sand and shingle. This is because the chalk level dips gradually as we travel from west to east. This dip becomes apparent if we travel along the coast. If we start our journey Hunstanton chalk deposits can be seen at the top of the cliff above earlier red chalk. As we travel eastwards along the North Norfolk Coast we are unable to see the chalk deposit due to a lack of cliff face- However the chalk bedrock is still above sea level. The cliffs meet the sea again at Weybourne, here this chalk can be seen at the base of the cliff well above the high tide point  but dipping as we move eastwards to create a wave cut platform at West Runton and lower down on the foreshore at Cromer and Overstrand.

There are also deposits of chalk which at first seem to mislead us as they can be found High above the mind deposit Sitting among glacial sands and clays these deposits of chalk Have Been lifted from thier original positionIn and dumped at higher levals - these structures are called Chalk Rafts and can be found to the East of East Runton Beach - just below Cromer Lighthouse at the top of the Cliff - at Sidestrand above the Coastguard Ramp and to the East of the Sea defences.
Created On  2 May 2020 16:28  -  Permalink

New Shipment Arrives

New Shipment ArrivesOur New Shipment has arrived at last from Brazil - The delivery day was a stark contrast to the days I was picking the same goods in the 40degrees heat of Brazil whilst the 'Beast from the East' brought unseasonably cold temperatures to Norfolk and the UK  - The day of delivery happily coincided with Summer Solstice, a long time since those snowy days in Norfolk, yet the wind blew from the North on Mid Summers Day in Cromer so despite Clear Skies and sunshine the temperatures were pegged down by the strong winds... 
It some work to fit the lorry load of palleted crystals into the warehouse and will take many months of work to unpack them - but the first pieces have made their way both to the shop on the warehouse shelves and to the pages of the website...

Created On  26 Jun 2018 11:48  -  Permalink

Libyan Desert Glass Tecktite

Libyan Desert Glass Tektite is found in the Sahara desert in Libya and Egypt.  It is of a similar constitution as of other tektites such as Moldavite and found in areas where meteorites exist.  Libyan Glass has been highly revered over time as sacred by the ancient Egyptians who used it in ceremonial pieces to connect to the stars and stellar origins.  Energetically speaking it therefore still carries this innate metaphysical characteristic...and not only enables one to connect to the Egyptian knowledge of the stars but also to Galactic and Stellar wisdom! Libyan Glass is identified by its light glassy, smooth and pitted appearance but whereas Moldavite exhibits a green colour Libyan Glass is a gold/yellow hue.  It carries with it powerful solar energy which when used at the solar plexus or carried on ones person can aid one in strengthening ones core at a level of willpower and manifestation.  It boosts ones confidence when there are feelings of insecurity and inadequacy present and it helps one to move beyond personal fears which can hold one back in life!  In meditation it opens and connects one to the Akashic record which if one is at a cross roads in life can be supportive in finding a positive direction to ones purpose!  Like all tektites...Libyan glass offers a protective energy to those who use or wear it. In particular because of its connection with solar activity it is wonderful at protecting one from emotional parasitic energy and power is perfect when one needs to establish and maintain good boundaries! It is a true ally and a gift from out of the cosmos to harness ones personal power and self reliance through birthing ones positive personal aspects into the world through Divine Will.

Specimens of this beautiful stone can be viewed and purchased on our website www.littlegemsrockshop.CO.UK  - please use the search facility OR THE FOLLOWING LINK 

Danny Hickling

Created On  17 Jul 2017 10:15  -  Permalink

Manifest your Dreams

Recently we have several questions asking for crystals that might help one manifest your dreams into your waking life. I asked Kathy, a Crystal Healer working for Little gems, if she could enlighten us a little more, she says. "Moldavite enhances the properties of whatever crystal it is combined with...Chrysocolla is all about the mother goddess energies, balanced harmonious relationships, good communication. For dreams coming true I would be inclined to place it with a herkimer diamond , sunstone or topaz...programming it and placing it in a sacred space at full moon...then sleep with it under a pillow, carry it on ones person or place it in an area that is dedicated to sacred prayer. Hope that is helpful...Chrysocolla would be good if a balanced harmonious future within relationships is what is required!"


Both these Crystals are available from the Crystal Pages of our website at

Created On  1 Jul 2017 0:06  -  Permalink

Imperfections and natural blemishes in Crystals

As each Crystal is unique and like us some have natural imperfections  - we hand pick our crystals from around the world and try to pick the crystals with most appeal and character - sometimes being natural and having formed over many millions of years may have traces of their past showing in their formation - for instance some of the  Carnelian we add have a small hollows in their centres - carnelian forms in small fissures cracks and cavities as very hot rock cools or in areas above hot rock where super heated water percolates through older rock above - it forms in  layers from the outside inwards as hydrothermal water lays down layers of quartz and chalcedony - occasionally this process completely fills the void that the carnelian formed in on many other occasions changes in  hydrothermal activity mean the carnelian stops forming leaving a cavity at the core of the carnelian - this can commonly also be seen at the heart of agates which form in the same way -

Each piece is we sell is unique and often Agates Quartz and Amethyst in particular can have internal fractures due to earth movements which show up when held in certain light these have then be re cemented naturally over the millennia as more recent quartz has naturally repaired these natural imperfections can add to their character almost like a finger print link to its history but we offer a 28day money back no quibble guarantee on any item (excluding stone polishers, books and earrings) if you fever reciece a piece that you feel doesn't feel right..

Created On  13 Jun 2017 15:18  -  Permalink

Norfolk Geology - Global Warming in the ICE AGE!!!

We Think of Global Warming as just a modern phenomenon however the earths climate is ever changing the Ice Ages were a major negative turn however this cold period was not a single event but a whole series of Freezing and Warming episodes. Long periods of thousands of years of icy conditions were suddenly punctuated by warmer periods than current conditions. In such inter glacial periods animals such as such as Hyena, Hippos,Brown Bears and Elephants and Beaver were abundant. In these periods Cromer area was the natural habitat for such creatures the area had a large fresh water river flowing through it which deposited a peaty layer (known as the "Cromer Forest Beds") over time these deposits built up and is still visible in several areas along the coast at the base of the cliff under the glacial sands and clays. The best place to see this layer is at West Runton. on walking down the slipway turn right and walk for a hundred yards or so and the deposit will show between landslips.The peaty layer can when weathered heavily in the winter reveal fossils of the above animals more commonly fresh water snails (gastropods) and Fresh water mussel fragments show. 
Please note Fossil hunting on the Beach is not a problem however the site is a Site of Special Scientific interest so digging in the cliffs is prohibited as well as being dangerous. 

Danny Little GemsLocal Geology Introduction Ref: 154
North Norfolk holds many clues to its past .The Sandy hills of Cromer to Holt the Chalk Wave cut Platforms of Cromer and Runton and the Peaty bases to the Cliffs at West Runton.
Created On  9 Jun 2017 1:00  -  Permalink